bookmark_borderWhat is the benefits of using FPGA ?

FPGAs or Field Programmable Gate Arrays are semiconductor chips which are exactly as the name suggests – gate arrays that be configured in the field by the designer based on their needs. It consists of many configurable logic blocks which can be programmed based on what functions the designer requires it to perform. In addition to the logic blocks, an FPGA consists of a programmable interconnect matrix that allows the designer to configure the FPGA internal wiring.

FPGA Beginners
FPGA Board for beginner

The confirmable logic blocks and the interconnect matrix make the FPGA a very powerful and flexible technology.Digital computing task in software are developed and compiled down to a bit stream or configuration file that contains detailed information useful in determining how the components are to be wired together. When an FPGA is reconfigured, it automatically takes on a new personality when recompiled in a different circuitry configuration.

The rules of FPGA programming are steadily changing due to the continued increase of high level designing tools with new technologies emerging that transform graphical diagram blocks or even C code into digital hardware circuitry. Field programmable gate arrays provide convenient speeds that are hardware timed and reliable and do not require high volumes to justify the expense of custom application specific integrated circuits.

There are a number of advantages that make FPGAs very attractive in various applications. This paper lists 10 benefits that make FPGAs a great choice:

Better Performance

A general CPU is unable to perform parallel processing, giving FPGAs the upper hand as they can perform processing and calculation in parallel at a faster rate.  Carefully designed FPGA can execute any function faster than a CPU which is running software code in a sequential fashion. FPGAs have additional gates and wiring that allow them to be flexible and programmable. This overhead come with a cost and therefore make FPGAs run slower than ASICs.

Programmability

What is the greatest advantage that FPGAs have over any other alternative is the fact that they are reprogrammable. This means that even after the circuit has been designed and implemented, FPGAs can still be modified, updated, and completely change its functionality to perform a completely different task than before. Reprogrammability reduces the efforts and cost required for the long-term maintenance of these chips. You do not need to invest in replacing or redesigning new hardware when the old one becomes out of date — you can simply update its code and program it in the field with the new funtionality.

Cost Efficiency

Since FPGAs can be reprogrammed again and again they prove to be extremely cost effective in the long run even though they may pose higher unit costs. They rid you of the need to cover for recurring any bug related costs that you may get stuck paying if you were to opt for an ASIC. ASICs also have heavy non-recurring expenses which are skipped altogether when it comes to FPGAs in addition to the fact that you do not require the use of any costly and expensive tools to design or configure your FPGA chip.
ASICs also prove to be more expensive in the long run as they must be completely redesigned along with hardware if updates and enhancements are needed. FPGAs do not share these costs as they can be reprogrammed for next to nothing.

Low maintenance

Unlike ASICs, FPGAs do not need to be upgraded or maintained in the same way as they are reprogrammable and can be upgraded or enhanced without a great deal of time and resource investment that would be required to reconfigure permanent circuit boards and hardware.

Parallel Task Performance 

Chips that perform data processing in a sequential manner tend to not be used time critical applications. FPGAs can be designed to include multiple blocks processing data in parallel. This means that it can offer much greater scalability as compared to other processors such as ASICs and MCUs as well as time critical data processing.

Prototyping

As mentioned before, FPGAs are reprogrammable and reusable. This makes them the perfect choice for prototyping purposes – especially for ASIC validation purposes. Before you tapeout your ASIC, it is important to determine whether your ASIC design in functioning and successfully achieves the purpose it has been designed for. ASICs are difficult and incredibly expensive to manufacture which means that if you end up with a chip that needs modification, you will have to invest a considerable amount of time and money to redesign the ASIC. With FPGAs, the reprogrammability feature allows you to perform test runs by manipulating the programming and determining the ideal configuration on one chip only. Once you have completed prototyping and determined what the best solution is, you can easily convert the FPGA into a permanent ASIC and deploy it for use.

Faster Time to Market 

One of the most significant advantages of FPGAs is that it allows you to finish the development of your product in a very short amount of time, meaning shorter time to market. FPGA design tools are easy to use and do not require a long learning curve. In addition to that, FPGAs are designed in a higher description language called HDL which is also a modular programming code. Using HDL code, such as VHDL or Verilog makes the design process extremely fast and efficient. FPGAs can very easily be reprogrammed at the software to test and validate the design in the lab. Modification can take place very quickly allow bug fixes in a short cycle time.

Simpler Design Cycles

Compared to ASICs, FPGAs have simpler design cycles meaning the design tools take care of the major function by themselves including placement, routing, and timing in reference to the specifications you have set for it. As such, they require almost little to no manual intervention when converting the program code into a downloadable design. If the design does not perform as expected, a new downloadable code can be prepared in a matter of hours – making the entire design cycle simple and quick.

Adaptability 

Because of their reprogrammability, FPGAs enable you to adapt and modify at the level of the customer rather than recreate the product whenever you need to make any updates. Even after the product has been finalized, developed, and delivered, you can update it and adapt it to the needs of the customer with minimum fuss.

Real Time Application

Like mentioned before, FPGAs are perfect for time critical systems due to their more efficient processing architecture. As such, they are ideal for real time applications as they can perform more processing in a shorter period of time as compared to other alternative in the market.

System on Chip

Since the 90’s FPGAs have become larger in terms of gate count. This made it possible to include CPU cores inside the FPGA – from a single core to a multiple number of cores, alongside a custom hardware code. By combining CPU cores and hardware code in a single chip making the FPGAs to function as system on chip.
FPGA chips are field programmable and do not require the intense workmanship or dispending of time and resources as involved with redesigning of ASICs. FPGA chips can keep up to date with future improvements on software that may be necessary. As a system reaches stages of maturity, enhancements towards its functionality can be made without time wastage in redesigning hardware or the board layout.

Since FPGAs work in a parallel fashion, they boast much higher speeds and thus can be used to solve complex computable problems, together with the re-programmability ability — this makes FPGAs both powerful and flexible machines. Some of the most common uses and applications for FPGAs today are:

FPGA Applications
FPGA Applications

 

 

 

bookmark_borderWhat is FPGA ?

Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are semiconductor devices that are based around a matrix of configurable logic blocks (CLBs) connected via programmable interconnects. FPGAs can be reprogrammed to desired application or functionality requirements after manufacturing.

This feature distinguishes FPGAs from Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), which are custom manufactured for specific design tasks. Although one-time programmable (OTP) FPGAs are available, the dominant types are SRAM based which can be reprogrammed as the design evolves.

In contrast to processors that you find in your PC, programming an FPGA rewires the chip itself to implement your functionality rather than run a software application. Ross Freeman, the cofounder of Xilinx, invented the first FPGA in 1985. NI has partnered with Xilinx to offer their cutting-edge FPGA technology in a variety of hardware platforms.

Top 5 Benefits of Using FPGAs

FPGA chip adoption across all industries is driven by the fact that FPGAs combine the best parts of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and processor-based systems. These benefits include the following:

  • Faster I/O response times and specialized functionality
  • Exceeding the computing power of digital signal processors
  • Rapid prototyping and verification without the fabrication process of custom ASIC design
  • Implementing custom functionality with the reliability of dedicated deterministic hardware
  • Field-upgradable eliminating the expense of custom ASIC re-design and maintenance

Lean More FPGA Board Benefits, please click here

 

 

bookmark_borderRISC-V Development Board

FII-PRX100 Development Board ( ARTIX 100T, XC7A100T, RISC-V FPGA Developing Board)

FII-PRX100 Educational Platform Educational Plaform is a ready-to-use development platform designed around the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) from Xilinx.  It was designed to cover all aspects of FPGA Development and Experiment, RISC-V SOC .  The main application areas aim at smart home, Wearable, sensor Fusion, IOT, and industrial control etc.

Description

FII-PRX100 Educational Platform Educational Plaform is a ready-to-use development platform designed around the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) from Xilinx.  It was designed to cover all aspects of FPGA Development and Experiment, RISC-V SOC .  The main application areas aim at smart home, Wearable, sensor Fusion, IOT, and industrial control etc.

FII-PRX100 Educational Platform Educational Plaform is a ready-to-use development platform designed around the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) from Xilinx.  It was designed to cover all aspects of FPGA Development and Experiment, RISC-V SOC .  The main application areas aim at smart home, Wearable, sensor Fusion, IOT, and industrial control etc.

Features:

  1. Fully supports the RV32IMFAC instruction architecture and provides a rich set of storage and interfaces, including: ITCM 64K(Instruction Tightly Coupled Memories) and DTCM 64K(Data Tightly Coupled Memories) for separate storage of instructions and data, and 2M bytes External super RAM support as well .
  2. 3-stage pipeline architecture
  3. support machine mode only
  4. From instruction fetch ,Decoder ,Execution to memory operation modules are 100% Manually developed by using pure verilog HDL, scalable and easy to be understood.
  5.  The flexible RISC-V IPCORE is suitable for customized ASIC for specific domain, Also can be used as embedded CPU with in FPGA.
  6.  Interrupt controller, supports 16 high-priority, low-latency local vectored interrupts.
  1. includes a RISC-V standard PLIC (platform-level interrupt controller ), which supports 127 global interrupts with 7 priority levels. provides the standard RISCV machine-mode timer and software interrupts via the CLINT(Core Local Interruptor)
  2. 2 UART
  3. 3 QSPI
  4. I2C
  5. 3 PWM
  6. 10M/100M/1G ethernet
  7. Watchdog
  8. 32 GPIO
  9. 4 7-seg display interface
  10. External Serial Flash
  11. Debug Interfaces: JTAG
  12. 12-Bit ADC
  13. Four data lines I2S and can support maximum of 8 audio outputs or 4 stereo channels
  14. Hardware Crypto Engine for Advanced Fast Security, Including: AES 128, CRC, Checksum etc

  1. Suitable for FPGA study and training
  2. Fully support FIE310 CPU running and system development
  3. Suitable for user customized RV32G verification and validation
  4. JTAG interface for FPGA and FIE310 CPU download and debug
  5. Support Windows software and linux development environment
  6. GCC compilation toolchain and graphical software development environment
  7. Hardware resource:   Switchs, Push Button ,USB to UART convertor, QSPI flash, I2C EEPROM, 100M/1G ethernet, USB keyboard mouse,GPIO , hdmi transmitter and camera etc.

RISC-V IPCore user development Guide

This document is edited by Fraser Innovation Inc. Step by step introduce how to develop each RISC-V CPU RTL modules based on RISC-V ISA, Simulations and board verifications, software environment and details on C language development, debug and program

Artificial Intelligence

Voice collection, speech recognition
Image acquisition and image recognition, deep learning

IOT

FII-PRX100 Educational Plaform Product Features:

  • FPGA part:  XC7A100T-2FGG676I
  • 1MSPS On-chip:  yes
  • Logic Cells:  101440
  • Logic Slices: 15850
  • Flip-flops: 65200
  • Memory blocks(36K): 135
  • Memory block(Kb): 4860
  • Clock Management Tiles: 6
  • DSP Slices: 240

System Features:

  • ADC: On-chip analog-to-digital converter (XADC)
  • Super Sram? IS61WV25616 (2 slices ) 256K x 32bit
  • Spi Flash? serial flash (16M bytes)
  • JTAG:  jtag Programmable ports
  • Multifunction: used for other board  (For example: iMX226 camera board, or adv7612 Hdmi in board , etc)
  • Power Supply? 12V adapter source

Interaction and Sensory Devices:

  • 8 Switches
  • 7 Buttons (up , down, left, right, ok, menu, return)
  • 1 Reset button
  • 8 LEDs
  • 1 4-digit 7 segment display
  • 1 I2c interface (24c02 eeprom)
  • Expansion Connector:

  • 4 gpio connectors (compatible with digilent Pmod)
  • 2 MultiFunction connectors (connect with iMX226 board, or others?
  • Main Chips: xilinx (1.0mm pitch) XC7A100T_FGG676

Interaction and Sensory Devices

  • GPIO Interface  (16 ) 2×8 Standard 2.54mm connector (pin)
  • led output  (8 ) 0603 SMD
  • 8 switchs SMD
  • 7 buttons (Top, Bottom, left, right,center, top left (menu), top right (return)
  • i2c 24c02 smd soic
  • spi flash MX25L6433F 8-SOP (8M bytes)
  • usb2uart ft2232C/H (2 uart ) Or cp2102 (1  uart)
  • jtag 2×5 Standard 2.54mm connectors(pin)
  • eth 1G CAT5 Ethernet (rtl8111e)
  • sram IS61WV25616 (2 pieces ) 256K x 32bit
  • Digital tube 7seg (4) oasistek TOF-5421BMRL-N 
  • Hdmi out adv7511? hdmi_adv7511.SchDoc
  • Test Port? 1×6 Standard2.54mm Connectors ?pin?

RISC-V (pronounced “risk-five”) is an open-source hardware instruction set architecture (ISA) based on established reduced instruction set computer (RISC) principles. A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (/r?sk/), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC). Various suggestions have been made regarding a precise definition of RISC, but the general concept is that such a computer has a small set of simple and general instructions, rather than a large set of complex and specialized instructions. Another common RISC trait is their load/store architecture, in which memory is accessed through specific instructions rather than as a part of most instructions.

The project began in 2010 at the University of California, Berkeley, but many contributors are volunteers not affiliated with the university.

As of March 2019, version 2.2 of the user-space ISA is frozen, permitting most software development to proceed. The privileged ISA is available as draft version 1.10. A debug specification is available as a draft version 0.13.1

Commercial Companies of RISC-V

  • SiFive, a company established specifically for developing RISC-V hardware, has processor models released in 2017. These include a RISC-V SoCa quad-core, 64-bit system on a chip (SoC).
  • FII, Fraser Innovation Inc has developed RISC-V FPGA boards which includes Risc-V Development Board ( ARTIX 100T, XC7A100T, RISC-V FPGA Developing Board) and Altera risc-v SOPC AI Cyclone10 FPGA Board
  • Syntacore, a founding member of the RISC-V Foundation and one of the first commercial RISC-V IP vendors, develops and licenses family of RISC-V IP since 2015. As of 2018, product line includes eight 32- and 64-bit cores, including open-source SCR1 MCU core. First commercial SoCs, based on the Syntacore IP were demonstrated in 2016.
  • Andes Technology Corporation, a founding member of the RISC-V Foundation which joined the consortium in 2016, released its first two RISC-V cores in 2017. The cores, the N25 and NX25, come with a complete design ecosystems and a number of RISC-V partners. Andes is actively driving the development of RISC-V ecosystem and expects to release several new RISC-V products in 2018.
  • Codasip and UltraSoC have developed fully supported intellectual property for RISC-V embedded SOCs that combine Codasip’s RISC-V cores and other IP with UltraSoC’s debug, optimization and analytics.
  • Imperas has developed a family of fast processor models for the different subsets of RV32GC and RV64GC ISA variants that are part of the OVPsim instruction accurate simulator distributions used for embedded software development.
  • GreenWaves Technologies announced the availability of GAP8, a 32-bit 1 controller plus 8 compute cores, 32-bit SoC and developer board in February 2018. Their GAPuino GAP8 development board started shipping in May 2018.
  • Hex Five announced general availability MultiZone Security – the first RISC-V trusted execution environment (TEE) using the standard RISC-V ISA and privileged mode extensions.
  • CloudBEAR is a processor IP company that develops its own RISC-V cores for a range of applications.
  • T-Head, a semiconductor business unit of Alibaba Group, has a commercial MCU, Scorpio, in production in 2019.
  • IAR Systems released the first version of IAR Embedded Workbench for RISC-V, which supports RV32 32-bit RISC-V cores and extensions in the first version. Future releases will include 64-bit support and support for the smaller RV32E base instruction set, as well as functional safety certification and security solutions.
  • Western Digital, in February 2019 announced a 32-bit RISC-V core called SweRV. The SweRV features an In-Order 2-way superscalar and nine-stage pipeline design. WD plans to use SweRV based processors in their flash controllers and SSDs, and will release it open-source to third parties starting from Q1 2019.
  • Instant SoC by FPGA Cores generates RISC-V core, peripherals and memories directly from C++.

 

bookmark_borderFPGA Development Board for Beginner

FPGA Development Board provides you with hardware platforms to speed your development time, enhance your productivity, and accelerate your time to market. Whether you need an evaluation board to begin development or want to speed time-to-market and lower risk with production data center accelerator cards or System-on-Modules, Xilinx and its ecosystem partners offer the industry’s most comprehensive set of hardware platforms to help speed your time-to-revenue.

FPGA development board company fraser innovation inc has developed a new FPGA study board for beginner is very useful for beginner FPGA developer to study. It can also be used as downloader.

The advantage of FPGA beginner study board:

  1. Beginner FPGA study board, cheaper but fully functional. cellphone sized. ( < 100 USD )
  2. power supply and download at the same time, no extra power supply and no extra data transfer line needed
  3. Small volume and light and can be put into your pocket. size: 10cm X 7 cm.
  4. Unique function: can be a study board as well a multifunctional JTAG downloader. 
  5. We use newest version Intel FPGA within two years and you can always keep in the front of FPGA industry.

Altera FPGA Study Board Hardware Resources?

  1. seven_seg_r
  2. VGA Video Interface × 1
  3. 1G Ethernet Interface × 1
  4. I2C EEPROM × 1
  5. DIP Switch × 8
  6. Controllable  LED light × 8
  7. Photoresistance × 1
  8. Thermistor × 1
  9. Adjustable Varistor × 1
  10. Buttons × 4
  11. GPIO Interface × 2
  12. Micro usb Interface?Power Supply and downlaod ) × 1
  13. SPI Communication Interface × 1
  14. AD/DA Conversion chip × 1
  15. JTAG Download Interface × 1
  16. FLASH 32Mbit  × 1

FPGA vs Microcontroller

When I first learned about FPGAs, all I really knew about before was microcontrollers. So first it is important to understand that they are very different devices. With a microcontroller, like an Arduino, the chip is already designed for you. You simply write some software, usually in C or C++, and compile it to a hex file that you load onto the microcontroller. The microcontroller stores the program in flash memory and will store it until it is erased or replaced. With microcontrollers you have control over the software.

FPGAs are different. You are the one designing the circuit. There is no processor to run software on, at least until you design one! You can configure an FPGA to be something as simple as an and gate, or something as complex as a multi-core processor.

To create your design, you write some HDL (Hardware Description Language). The two most popular HDLs are Verilog and VHDL. You then synthesize your HDL into a bit file which you can use to configure the FPGA. A slight downside to FPGAs is that they store their configuration in RAM, not flash, meaning that once they lose power they lose their configuration. They must be configured every time power is applied.

That is not as bad as it seems as there are flash chips you can use that will automatically configure the stored bit file on power up. There are also some development boards which don’t require a programmer at all and will configure the FPGA at startup.

With FPGAs you have control over the hardware.

FPGA Board for Beginner

FII-PRA006 – Altera FPGA Study Board, Verilog for beginner – Cyclone-10 FPGA Development Board –

The advantage of FPGA beginner study board:

  1. Beginner FPGA study board, cheaper but fully functional. cellphone sized. ( < 100 USD )
  2. power supply and download at the same time, no extra power supply and no extra data transfer line needed
  3. Small volume and light and can be put into your pocket. size: 10cm X 7 cm.
  4. Unique function: can be a study board as well a multifunctional JTAG downloader. 
  5. We use newest version Intel FPGA within two years and you can always keep in the front of FPGA industry.

Altera FPGA Study Board Hardware Resources?

  1. seven_seg_r
  2. VGA Video Interface × 1
  3. 1G Ethernet Interface × 1
  4. I2C EEPROM × 1
  5. DIP Switch × 8
  6. Controllable  LED light × 8
  7. Photoresistance × 1
  8. Thermistor × 1
  9. Adjustable Varistor × 1
  10. Buttons × 4
  11. GPIO Interface × 2
  12. Micro usb Interface?Power Supply and downlaod ) × 1
  13. SPI Communication Interface × 1
  14. AD/DA Conversion chip × 1
  15. JTAG Download Interface × 1
  16. FLASH 32Mbit  × 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

bookmark_borderAnalog Devices, Inc

Analog Devices, Inc. (NASDAQ: ADI) defines innovation and excellence in signal processing. ADI’s analog, mixed-signal, and digital signal processing (DSP) integrated circuits (IC) play a fundamental role in converting, conditioning, and processing real-world phenomena such as light, sound, temperature, motion, and pressure into electrical signals to be used in a wide array of electronic equipment.

AD-FMCOMMS3-EBZ Board $379
AD-FMCOMMS3-EBZ Board $379

Analog Devices, Inc., also known as ADI or Analog, is an American multinational semiconductor company specializing in data conversion and signal processing technology, headquartered in Norwood, Massachusetts. In 2012, Analog Devices led the worldwide data converter market with a 48.5% share, according to analyst firm Databeans. Its AD9361 and AD9371 products are widely used in current industries.

The company manufactures analog, mixed-signal and digital signal processing (DSP) integrated circuits (ICs) used in electronic equipment. These technologies are used to convert, condition and process real-world phenomena, such as light, sound, temperature, motion, and pressure into electrical signals.[

Analog Devices has approximately 100,000 customers in the following industries: communications, computer, industrial, instrumentation, military/aerospace, automotive, and consumer electronics applications.

ADI is synonymous with high performance among electronics manufacturers and we collaborate with our customers to define the very best in the quality of the user experience. That means the clearest image, crispest sound, and optimum interface, size and performance in thousands of entertainment, medical, communications, industrial and other applications.

Linear Technology now part of Analog Devices, Inc. – Linear Technology Corporation designs, manufactures and markets a broad line of standard high performance integrated circuits. Applications for the Company’s products include telecommunications, cellular telephones, networking products, notebook and desktop computers, video/multimedia, industrial instrumentation, automotive electronics, factory automation, process control, and military and space systems.

The Company’s principal product categories include amplifiers, battery management, data converters, high frequency, interface, voltage regulators and voltage references.

Analog Devices, Inc. acquires Linear Technology: With the combined 80 years of technology excellence, ADI becomes “The Premier Global Analog Technology Company”. This new comprehensive portfolio gives customers an edge by market leading position, innovation, and commitment. 

FII-BD9361 –  Perfectly compatible with AD-FMCOMMS3-EBZ – Code compatible, development tool compatible, performance compatible, Smaller size and more space saving

– AD9361 Software Development Kit using the AD9361 RF Agile Transceiver

The FII-BD9361 is a high-speed analog module designed to showcase the AD9361, a high performance, highly integrated RF transceiver intended for use in RF applications, such as 3G and 4G base station and test equipment applications, and software defined radios. Its program-ability and wide-band capability make it ideal for a broad range of transceiver applications. The device combines an RF front end with a flexible mixed-signal base-band section and integrated frequency synthesizers, simplifying design-in by providing a configurable digital interface to a processor or FPGA.

The AD9361 chip operates in the 70 MHz to 6 GHz range, covering most licensed and unlicensed bands. The chip supports channel bandwidths from less than 200 kHz to 56 MHz by changing sample rate, digital filters, and decimation, which re all programmable within the AD9361 itself.

Features and Benefits

  1. Software tunable across wide frequency range : TX :47 MHz to 6 GHz RX:70 MHz to 6 GHz

  2. Software tunable bandwidth200 kHz to 56 MHz.

  3. Software tunable TX Power and RX Dynamic Range:TX>80dB RX>70dB

  4. Powered up from single standard FMC connector

  5. Supports MIMO radio,2 ways TX and 2 ways RX?Max 4T4R by RF Switches configuration?

  6. Supports FII-7030 and other standard FMC Connector Platform software radio application

  7. TX Power higher, Broadband flatness is better.

ADI Products and technologies

  • Analog Devices products include analog signal processing and digital signal processing technologies.[These technologies include data converters, amplifiers, radio frequency (RF) technologies, embedded processors or digital signal processing (DSP) ICs, power management, and interface products.[
  • Data converters include analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters (DACs) that convert electrical signal representations of real-world analog phenomena, such as light, sound, waveforms, temperature, motion, and pressure into digital signals or data, and back again.
  • Analog Devices ADC and DAC ICs are used in medical systems, scientific instrumentation, wireless and wired communications, radar, industrial process control, audio and video equipment, and other digital-processing-based systems, where an accurate signal conversion is critical. Data converters account for more than 50% of ADI’s revenue. ADI’s companion amplifier ICs provide accurate, high-speed and precise signals for driving data converters and are key for applications such as digital audio, current sensing, and precision instrumentation.[
  • The company’s data converter chips are used by National Instruments in high-precision measurement instrumentation systems.[ Its data converters and amplifiers are also used by scientists and researchers in project “IceCube” – an underground telescope that uses digital optical modules (DOMS) to detect subatomic particles in the South Pole.[
  • Power management products for customers in the industrial, wireless infrastructure and digital camera markets support signal chain design requirements, such as dynamic range, transient performance, and reliability.[
  • Interface products include a broad range of interface IC products offered by the company in product categories such as CAN (controller area network),[ digital isolators,[ level translators, LVDS, mobile I/O expander and keyboard Controller, USB, and RS-232.[
  • Amplifiers includes precision and operational amplifiers,  instrumentation, current sense, differential amplifiers, audio amplifiers, video amplifiers/buffers/filters, variable gain amplifiers, comparators, voltage, other specialty amplifiers and products for special linear functions.
  • Radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) address the RF signal chain and simplify RF system development. The company’s RF portfolio includes TruPwr RMS power detectors and logarithmic amplifiers; PLL and DDS synthesizers; RF prescalers; variable gain amplifiers; ADC drivers, gain blocks, LNAs and other RF amplifiers.[
  • Processors and DSP are programmable signal processing integrated circuits that execute specialized software programs, or algorithms, associated with processing digitized real-time data. Analog Devices Processors and DSPs are the Blackfin,[ SHARC, SigmaDSP, TigerSHARC, ADSP-21xx and Precision Analog Microcontrollers. These make up the company’s embedded processing and DSP portfolio, that are multi-DSP signal processing,[

bookmark_borderAnalog Devices RF AD9361 FPGA Development Board – AD-FMCOMMS3-EBZ Board $379

Analog Devices RF & Microwave offerings provide the broadest capabilities in the industry coupled with deep system design expertise. We can support your designs with complete signal chain capability, including RF, microwave and millimeter wave.

 

AD-FMCOMMS3-EBZ Board $379 – AD9361 Development Board, AD9361 Software Development Kit FII- BD9361 – compatible AD9361 RF Transceiver™ Board

You can choose from a broad selection of discrete components and integrated solutions, including comprehensive antenna to bits portfolio for applications DC to beyond 100 GHz. ADI offers the widest array of technologies, including CMOS, SiGe, BiCMOS, SOI, GaAs and GaN. Discover the difference Analog Devices can make for your RF & Microwave designs in Communications, Test & Measurement Instrumentation, Industrial, and Aerospace and Defense. RF 2 × 2 transceiver with integrated 12-bit DACs and ADCs

AD9361 Product Details …

The AD9361 is a high performance, highly integrated radio frequency (RF) Agile Transceiver™ designed for use in 3G and 4G base station applications.

Its programmability and wideband capability make it ideal for a broad range of transceiver applications. The device combines a RF front end with a flexible mixed-signal baseband section and integrated frequency synthesizers, simplifying design-in by providing a configurable digital interface to a processor. The AD9361 receiver LO operates from 70 MHz to 6.0 GHz and the transmitter LO operates from 47 MHz to 6.0 GHz range, covering most licensed and unlicensed bands. Channel bandwidths from less than 200 kHz to 56 MHz are supported.

The two independent direct conversion receivers have state-of-the-art noise figure and linearity. Each receive (RX) subsystem includes independent automatic gain control (AGC), dc offset correction, quadrature correction, and digital filtering, thereby eliminating the need for these functions in the digital baseband. The AD9361 also has flexible manual gain modes that can be externally controlled. Two high dynamic range analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) per channel digitize the received I and Q signals and pass them through configurable decimation filters and 128-tap finite impulse response (FIR) filters to produce a 12-bit output signal at the appropriate sample rate.

The transmitters use a direct conversion architecture that achieves high modulation accuracy with ultralow noise. This transmitter design produces a best in class TX error vector magnitude (EVM) of <?40 dB, allowing significant system margin for the external power amplifier (PA) selection. The on-board transmit (TX) power monitor can be used as a power detector, enabling highly accurate TX power measurements.

The fully integrated phase-locked loops (PLLs) provide low power fractional-N frequency synthesis for all receive and transmit channels. Channel isolation, demanded by frequency division duplex (FDD) systems, is integrated into the design. All VCO and loop filter components are integrated. The core of the AD9361 can be powered directly from a 1.3 V regulator. The IC is controlled via a standard 4-wire serial port and four real-time input/output control pins. Comprehensive power-down modes are included to minimize power consumption during normal use. The AD9361 is packaged in a 10 mm × 10 mm, 144-ball chip scale package ball grid array (CSP_BGA).

FII-BD9361 (AD9316 Development Board, AD9361 RF Agile Transceiver™)Product Details

  1. The FII-BD9361 is a high-speed analog module designed to showcase the AD9361, a high performance, highly integrated RF transceiver intended for use in RF applications, such as 3G and 4G base station and test equipment applications, and software defined radios. Its programmability and wideband capability make it ideal for a broad range of transceiver applications.
  2. The device combines an RF front end with a flexible mixed-signal baseband section and integrated frequency synthesizers, simplifying design-in by providing a configurable digital interface to a processor or FPGA. The AD9361 chip operates in the 70 MHz to 6 GHz range, covering most licensed and unlicensed bands. The chip supports channel bandwidths from less than 200 kHz to 56 MHz by changing sample rate, digital filters, and decimation, which are all programmable.

AD9316 Features

  • TX band: 47 MHz to 6.0 GHz
  • RX band: 70 MHz to 6.0 GHz
  • Supports TDD and FDD operation
  • Tunable channel bandwidth: <200 kHz to 56 MHz
  • Dual receivers: 6 differential or 12 single-ended inputs
  • Superior receiver sensitivity with a noise figure of 2 dB at 800 MHz LO
  • RX gain control
  •  
  • Real-time monitor and control signals for manual gain
  • Independent automatic gain control
  • Dual transmitters: 4 differential outputs
  • Highly linear broadband transmitter
  •  
  • TX EVM: ??40 dB
  • TX noise: ??157 dBm/Hz noise floor
  • TX monitor: ?66 dB dynamic range with 1 dB accuracy
  • Integrated fractional-N synthesizers
  • 2.4 Hz maximum local oscillator (LO) step size
  • Multichip synchronization
  • CMOS/LVDS digital interface

AD 9361 Development Board Interface?

Digital Interface?FMC-LPC
RF Interface? Four Way Differential Tranceiver

Features

  • TX band: 47 MHz to 6.0 GHz
  • RX band: 70 MHz to 6.0 GHz
  • Bandwidth Adjustment Range: 200 kHz to 56 MHz
  • Low noise figure: 2dB NF?noise figure/800MHz )
  • LO ,RX Gain Control?AGC
  • 2.4Hhz local oscillator (LO) step
  • For more information, please check ad9361 introducation.

Applications

  • General purpose design  for any software-designed radio application
  • MIMO radio
  • Point to point communication systems
  • Femtocell/picocell/microcell base stations
  • USRP
  • 3G/4G signal and protocol analysis
  • WiFi
  • ISM

bookmark_borderFPGA Embedded web servers

Embedded web servers (Cheap Web Hosting) have a growing presence in a wide range of fields related to consumer electronics and industrial applications.

A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit (IC) that can be programmed in the field after manufacture. FPGAs are similar in principle to, but have vastly wider potential application than, programmable read-only memory (PROM) chips.

FPGA vs Microcontroller

When I first learned about FPGAs, all I really knew about before was microcontrollers. So first it is important to understand that they are very different devices.

With a microcontroller, like an Arduino, the chip is already designed for you. You simply write some software, usually in C or C++, and compile it to a hex file that you load onto the microcontroller.

The microcontroller stores the program in flash memory and will store it until it is erased or replaced. With microcontrollers you have control over the software.

FPGAs are different. You are the one designing the circuit. There is no processor to run software on, at least until you design one! You can configure an FPGA to be something as simple as an and gate, or something as complex as a multi-core processor.

To create your design, you write some HDL (Hardware Description Language). The two most popular HDLs are Verilog and VHDL.

You then synthesize your HDL into a bit file which you can use to configure the FPGA. A slight downside to FPGAs is that they store their configuration in RAM, not flash, meaning that once they lose power they lose their configuration. They must be configured every time power is applied.

That is not as bad as it seems as there are flash chips you can use that will automatically configure the stored bit file on power up. There are also some development boards which don’t require a programmer at all and will configure the FPGA at startup.

With FPGAs you have control over the hardware.

The Possibilities

With a typical microprocessor, you have dedicated pins for specific features. For example there will be only two pins on some microprocessors that are used as a serial port. If you want more than one serial port, or you want to use some other pins, your only solution besides getting a different chip is to use software to emulate a serial port. That works fine except you are wasting valuable processor time with the very basic task of sending out bits. If you want to emulate more than one port then you end up using all your processor time.

With an FPGA you are able to create the actual circuit, so it is up to you to decide what pins the serial port connects to. That also means you can create as many serial ports as you want. The only limitations you really have are the number of physical I/O pins and the size of the FPGA.

Just like microcontrollers that have a set amount of memory for your program, FPGAs can only emulate a circuit so large.

One of the very interesting things about FPGAs is that while you are designing the hardware, you can design the hardware to be a processor that you then can write software for! In fact, companies that design digital circuits, like Intel or nVidia, often use FPGAs to prototype their chips before creating them.

FPGAs are used by engineers in the design of specialized ICs that can later be produced hard-wired in large quantities for distribution to computer manufacturers and end users.

Ultimately, FPGAs might allow computer users to tailor microprocessors to meet their own individual needs.

FPGAs are a valid alternative in the implementation of these systems adding additional advantages to the traditional architectures based on microprocessors or microcontrollers.

In this paper we introduce two web server implementations on FPGA devices. The first uses an embedded hard core microprocessor and the second is based on specifically designed hardware.

The performance of these implementations has been evaluated and compared with commercial architectures. The results show that FPGA-based servers ( the cheapest Window dedicated servers ) have a similar or superior throughput than other approaches but with reduced consumption of resources and low clock rates.

cPanel Hosting is the extensively used and considered to be the easiest control panel, thus we bring our hosting plans to you with cPanel account for easy management. With cPanel you can manage your website databases, files and folders and manage domains and sub-domains, create email accounts, and a lot more. We have customized the cPanel skin and organized the tools in such a way that it would give you a more user friendly experience. In order to give you full control over your account we have added many third party tools for your convenience.

web hosting is one of the key components of every successful website. Choosing the best WordPress hosting for your needs can improve your SEO and increase sales. There are various different types of WordPress hosting options available such as Free, Shared, VPS, Dedicated, and managed WordPress hosting.

All the web hosting servers are run by CPU, GPC, RAM, and HD servers. But in the future, there are a lot of FPGA and GPU servers will be working for fast websites no matter window web hosting or cpanel web hosting.